Apache Tomcat Development
CGI How To
The CGI (Common Gateway Interface) defines a way for a web server to
interact with external content-generating programs, which are often
referred to as CGI programs or CGI scripts.
Within Tomcat, CGI support can be added when you are using Tomcat as your
HTTP server and require CGI support. Typically this is done
during development when you don't want to run a web server like
Tomcat's CGI support is largely compatible with Apache httpd's,
but there are some limitations (e.g., only one cgi-bin directory).
CGI support is implemented using the servlet class
this servlet is mapped to the URL pattern "/cgi-bin/*".
By default CGI support is disabled in Tomcat.
CAUTION - CGI scripts are used to execute programs
external to the Tomcat JVM. If you are using the Java SecurityManager this
will bypass your security policy configuration in
To enable CGI support:
There are commented-out sample servlet and servlet-mapping elements for
CGI servlet in the default
To enable CGI support in your web application, copy that servlet and
servlet-mapping declarations into
WEB-INF/web.xml file of your
Uncommenting the servlet and servlet-mapping in
$CATALINA_BASE/conf/web.xml file enables CGI for all installed
web applications at once.
privileged="true" on the Context element for your
Only Contexts which are marked as privileged are allowed to use the
CGI servlet. Note that modifying the global
file affects all web applications. See
Context documentation for details.
There are several servlet init parameters which can be used to
configure the behaviour of the CGI servlet.
- cgiMethods - Comma separated list of HTTP methods. Requests
using one of these methods will be passed to the CGI script for the script to
generate the response. The default value is
* for the script to handle all requests regardless of method.
Unless over-ridden by the configuration of this parameter, requests using HEAD,
OPTIONS or TRACE will have handled by the superclass.
- cgiPathPrefix - The CGI search path will start at
the web application root directory + File.separator + this prefix.
By default there is no value, which results in the web application root
directory being used as the search path. The recommended value is
- cmdLineArgumentsDecoded - If command line argumemnts
are enabled (via enableCmdLineArguments) and Tomcat is running
on Windows then each individual decoded command line argument must match this
pattern else the request will be rejected. This is to protect against known
issues passing command line arguments from Java to Windows. These issues can
lead to remote code execution. For more information on these issues see
Wulftange's blog and this archived
by Daniel Colascione.
- cmdLineArgumentsEncoded - If command line argumemnts
are enabled (via enableCmdLineArguments) individual encoded
command line argument must match this pattern else the request will be rejected.
The default matches the allowed values defined by RFC3875 and is
- enableCmdLineArguments - Are command line arguments
generated from the query string as per section 4.4 of 3875 RFC? The default is
- environment-variable- - An environment to be set for the
execution environment of the CGI script. The name of variable is taken from the
parameter name. To configure an environment variable named FOO, configure a
parameter named environment-variable-FOO. The parameter value is used as the
environment variable value. The default is no environment variables.
- executable - The name of the executable to be used to
run the script. You may explicitly set this parameter to be an empty string
if your script is itself executable (e.g. an exe file). Default is
- executable-arg-1, executable-arg-2,
and so on - additional arguments for the executable. These precede the
CGI script name. By default there are no additional arguments.
- envHttpHeaders - A regular expression used to select the
HTTP headers passed to the CGI process as environment variables. Note that
headers are converted to upper case before matching and that the entire header
name must match the pattern. Default is
- parameterEncoding - Name of the parameter encoding
to be used with the CGI servlet. Default is
System.getProperty("file.encoding","UTF-8"). That is the system
default encoding, or UTF-8 if that system property is not available.
- passShellEnvironment - Should the shell environment
variables from Tomcat process (if any) be passed to the CGI script? Default is
- stderrTimeout - The time (in milliseconds) to wait for
the reading of stderr to complete before terminating the CGI process. Default
The CGI script executed depends on the configuration of the CGI Servlet and
how the request is mapped to the CGI Servlet. The CGI search path starts at the
web application root directory + File.separator + cgiPathPrefix. The
pathInfo is then searched unless it is
null - in
which case the servletPath is searched.
The search starts with the first path segment and expands one path segment
at a time until no path segments are left (resulting in a 404) or a script is
found. Any remaining path segments are passed to the script in the
PATH_INFO environment variable.